Varvara Romanenko, Alexei Taranin, Viktor Koreshev, Georgy Kulikov, Natalia Bogoyavlenskaya, Anna Kravtsova, Maxim Makarov, Maxim Mikheev, Yuri Orlov, Elena Vasyova, Vladimir Derevyanko, Konstantin Batrakov, Vladimir Morozov, Yuri Podgorbunsky, Maxim Samborsky, Roman Malyshev, Andrei Sosnovsky, Andrei Tavolzhansky, Elena Fokina, Valeria Borscheva, Alexei Igoshev, Ilya Maskileyson, Egor Lisovoy, Nikolai Pigarev, Maxim Smirnov, Vladislav Ikonnikov, Vladimir Borisov, Yuri Grishin, Arthur Salihov, Mikhail Tatyanin
After the advent of the Iron Age, many objects continued to be made of copper — it was a cheap, accessible and easy-to-machine metal.
Coins of the cheapest denomination were minted from copper. The word “coppers” still remains in Russian
Engravings were made on copper planks — until the end of the 19th century it was the only way to replicate images.
In the 18th century, copper plates began to cover the bottoms of ships.
Copper concentrate, fluxes (special substances that are added to ore to lower the melting temperature and make it easier to separate the metal from the waste rock) and lime make up the charge — a mixture that is loaded into the furnace. The smelter processes the mixture at a temperature of 1180 °C.
The molten mixture enters a chute into a mixer furnace, where it is separated into slag (a byproduct of smelting) and matte (copper-rich melt). The matte, containing 50-55% copper, is poured into ladles and sent to a converter, where blister copper is produced by oxidizing impurities. Blister copper is used to cast ingots — “pigs”.
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