Abeilles ruches
The myth of the uselessness of drones and its debunking
The word “dormouse” has become synonymous with worthlessness and uselessness, but in fact it is not so
The typical dormouse, or Apidae sociales
The typical dormouse, or Apidae sociales

Drones, male bees, are much larger than worker bees and eat three times as much honey as they do.

Drones have the most important function: they are the continuation of the family, their task is to fertilize the queen, without which the life of the bee family will cease.

Drones produce large amounts of heat, and during the cold, this heat allows the larvae to survive.

The presence of drones “inspires” worker bees to work more productively.
Drones are the most non-aggressive members of the bee family. They don’t even have a sting.
Heads of cheese
Cheese in Russia:
before the revolution and after
Cheese in our country has always been difficult: there was no industrial cheese making in the Russian Empire until the middle of the 19th century.

In 1698, Peter I brought several artisans from Holland in the hope that they will establish a cheese business in Russia, but the process did not go: they made cheese for the tsar, but they did not share the secrets of the craft.

The first Russian cheese factory opened in 1812 in the village of Lotoshino, Staritsk County, Tver Province, owned by Prince Ivan Meshchersky. Before this, the prince duly traveled through Europe, looked at everything, studied and came back in the company of the Swiss Johann Mueller, who organized the Lotoshino cheese production. The factory existed until 1917.

Prince Meshchersky's Cheese Factory, 1910s
Prince Meshchersky’s Cheese Factory, 1910s
The most outstanding successes in cheese-making were achieved by Nikolay Vereshchagin, a naval officer, elder brother of the famous artist Vasily Vereshchagin. Since 1865 he studied cheese making in Switzerland, Germany, Denmark and England and already in a year he opened the first artisanal peasant cheese factory in Tver county, then some more — near Tver and near Rybinsk, until they have grown into a whole network. By the beginning of the twentieth century in Russia there were already about 40 thousand dairy cooperatives that produced cheese.
Nikolay Vasilievich Vereshchagin
Nikolay Vasilievich Vereshchagin
At Vereshchagin's Cheese Factory, late 19th century
At Vereshchagin’s Cheese Factory, late 19th century
After the revolution of 1917 victorious Bolsheviks for a long time was not about cheese — to this topic back only in 1930, created on the basis of Uglich Cheese Factory State Laboratory cheese, which later became the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of the cheese industry.
Soviet cheese billboard, 1960s
Soviet cheese billboard, 1960s
Advertising poster of Soviet processed cheese, 1960s
Advertising poster of Soviet processed cheese, 1960s

Despite this, until the 1960s, cheese remained a real delicacy for Soviet citizens, which is almost impossible to buy in stores.

In the 1970s, cheese production was established in the USSR, and it became a widely available product.

At the Uglich Cheese Factory, c. 1950s
At the Uglich Cheese Factory, c. 1950s
Cheeses of the USSR in the assortment
Cheeses of the USSR in the assortment
Cheesecakes on a plate
Cheesecake recipe with melted cottage cheese
From Chef Georgy Troyan
Ingredients
Melted cottage cheese — 300 g Regular 9% Cheese — 150 g Flour — 18 g
Sugar — 18 g
One egg yolk — 1
Butter and oil
secret #1
Mix two kinds of cottage cheese and strain through a sieve — then the cheesecakes will not have lumps and they will be airy.
secret #2
Leave the curd mixture in the refrigerator for one night — the curd will properly infuse, and the cheesecakes will not spill out on the pan.
Let’s start cooking

Add 13 g of flour, 13 g of powdered sugar and an egg yolk to the curd mixture, mix everything by hand, add the remaining flour and powdered sugar, mix again and place the dough in the refrigerator for 2 hours.

Shape the cheesecakes into about 60 grams each: sprinkle the board with flour, roll the balls of dough and press on top with a spatula to get the desired shape.

Pour vegetable oil into a frying pan, add a little butter for flavor, lightly heat and fry the cheesecakes for a minute on each side until golden brown, and then finish in the oven. If you don’t have an oven, an oven will do: heat it to 180 degrees and put the cheesecakes there for 5-7 minutes.

Serve ready cheesecakes with sour cream and berries.

Strawberries
Strawberry is not strawberry
It’s a very different, though related berry.

We are accustomed to calling forest berries strawberries, and those that grow in the fields strawberries. In fact, both are strawberries, forest and garden, respectively.

Garden strawberry
Garden strawberry
The true strawberry, aka Fragária víridis, or meadow strawberry, grows in the forests and meadows of European Russia and Siberia and in the mountains of Central Asia. It has male and female plants, unlike the “same-sex” strawberry. True strawberries seldom fully ripen, some of them remain whitish-greenish, but their flavor and sweetness is not affected by it — they can easily compete with strawberries — both forest and garden.
Meadow strawberries
Meadow strawberries
Beetle
Berries aslo have enemies
The two main enemies of berries are quite different from each other.
May beetle larvae live in the ground and their main delicacy is plant roots, which they can gnaw endlessly. Thrushes fly in the sky, like to gather in large flocks and seek ripe strawberries, but they are greedy and insatiable. Fighting them with methods safe from the ecological point of view is not easy, but realistic: Farmers fight the first ones with regular plowing of land, and farmers have a secret weapon against thrushes — birds of prey. At the sight of eagles, kites and hawks, thrushes immediately fly away.
Songbird
Songbird

The project was worked on by

Author, Producer and Project Manager

Georgy Avanyan

editor

Vladislav Kulakov

manager

Elena Kuklina

author group

  • Viktor Kamenchenko
  • Dmitry Lipkin
  • Elena Matza
  • Sergey Shaulov

Researching

  • Alexandra Tertitskaya
  • Alsu Guzairova
  • Julia Baklanova

Scientific leader of the project
“How Dostoevsky Conquered the World”

Pavel Fokin

Film crew leader

Natalia Makarova

design and development

Pixeljam Studio

Art director

Alexander Grigoriev

development
Dmitry Udovichenko
Dmitry Orlov

Animation

Video “Man Marey” based on the story of the same name by F.M. Dostoevsky

reads

Roman Chaliapin

director

Alexander Hunt

Filmed at F.M. Dostoyevsky’s memorial estate “Darovoye”.

Photographer

Valeria Konyukhova

Dmitry Lvov was interviewed by

Petr Kamenchenko

The work on the project involved

Varvara Romanenko, Alexei Taranin, Viktor Koreshev, Georgy Kulikov, Natalia Bogoyavlenskaya, Anna Kravtsova, Maxim Makarov, Maxim Mikheev, Yuri Orlov, Elena Vasyova, Vladimir Derevyanko, Konstantin Batrakov, Vladimir Morozov, Yuri Podgorbunsky, Maxim Samborsky, Roman Malyshev, Andrei Sosnovsky, Andrei Tavolzhansky, Elena Fokina, Valeria Borscheva, Alexei Igoshev, Ilya Maskileyson, Egor Lisovoy, Nikolai Pigarev, Maxim Smirnov, Vladislav Ikonnikov, Vladimir Borisov, Yuri Grishin, Arthur Salihov, Mikhail Tatyanin

We thank Russian Copper Company for the filming possibility at Kyshtym Copper Electrolyte Plant, Karabash Copper Smelting Plant and Mikheevsky GOK

Illustrations have been provided:

  • Russian State Archives of Film and Photo Documents
  • State Museum of the History of Russian Literature. V.I. Dal
  • Russian Copper Company
  • Shutterstock

My Farm

Every year there are more and more farmers in russia. people want to work the land, create something useful and necessary with their own hands, share it with others, and they see their vocation in this

Three farms

None of the founders of the three farms intended to be farmers — they did not associate their future with raising bees, producing dairy products, or growing berries. But life happened so that each of them eventually chose the path of farming — and did not regret it.

To work fruitfully on the land, it is not enough just to want to do it. It is necessary to love your business with all your soul and devote yourself to it completely. Only then will the bees, cows, and berries reciprocate, and everything will work out.

Andrey Medvedev

Andrey Medvedev’s farm “Rare Honey” is located in the village of Baranovo, Yasnogorsk district of Tula region, in an ecologically clean natural area.
Beehives and wooden stakes with honeycombs stand on the edge of the forest. Around the apiary, from spring to fall, fields of various honey-bearing plants bloom, where bees extract nectar for honey.
Andrey Medvedev
Andrei Medvedev did not intend to be a beekeeper. He wanted to be a theologian, graduated from St. Tikhon’s University with a master’s degree in theology, but over time he became very interested in beekeeping and decided to dedicate himself to this occupation.
Having studied the theory, Andrew went to buy bees.
Andrey Medvedev

How bees live

Honeybees are collective insects that live in families. In a typical bee family
15–80
thousands of bees
There are record-breaking families that number up to
110
thousands of individuals
There is a strict hierarchy in the bee family.

Bee family

Queen bee
Queen bee

The main bee in the family, the successor of the family.

Trumpets
Trumpets

Male bees. Their mission is to fertilize the queen.

Working bees
Builders
Building a honeycomb and taking care of the hive
Aqueducts
Supply the hive with water
Security guards
On duty at the entrance of the hive, guarding it from external enemies
Scouts
Looking for honey plants
Extractors
Getting nectar
Receivers
Taking honey from the miners
janitors
Cleaning the hive
Nanny Feeders
Taking care of the youngsters
Cleaners
Ensure that the uterus lays eggs correctly, regulate the number of eggs in the clutch
Fan Workers
Pushing the air with their wings, saving the hive from overheating
Hairdressers
Cleaning the backs and wings of preppers from pollen clinging
Bandits
Stealing honey from other hives
Eggs and larvae
Eggs and larvae

The larvae eat royal jelly, beeswax, and honey and prepare to pupate to become bees

Youngsters
Youngsters

Feeding the uterus and larvae

The bee’s lifespan is short: worker bees live only 25-30 days, the queen bee 2-3 years, sometimes up to 5 years.
All worker bees in the hive are sisters. They cannot mate with drones — only the queen is allowed to do so.
Andrey Medvedev
Myth about drones
explore
explore
Abeilles ruches
The word “dormouse” has become synonymous with uselessness, but is it fair?

Where bees live

Each bee family needs its own home. In the wild it is a hollow, in apiaries — hives and wells. The rarest honey is borteva honey. It is produced by bees living in hollows — special hollows specially hollowed out in the trunks of trees.
Andrey Medvedev

How bees communicate

For a long time, people have wondered how bees know where to go for nectar. It turned out that each bee family had its own scouts, who regularly went to explore their surroundings to find out where the most melliferous honey was. But how they inform the others was a mystery until the Austrian scientist Karl von Frisch discovered in 1919 that bees communicate through the language of dance.

The Bee Dance

The Bee Dance
What else do bees do besides make honey
A lot of useful things: bee hives, beeswax, royal jelly, propolis. Adherents of folk medicine believe that all this should be drunk, eaten or smeared on the knees. Official medicine is mostly silent.
Pollen and beeswax

Pollen and beeswax

Bees collect pollen from plants and carry it on their furry legs. Beebreadth is “preserved” pollen with the addition of honey.

royal jelly

royal jelly

A special nutrient with which bees feed their larvae and the queen bee.

Propolis

Propolis

It contains many useful trace elements and has antiseptic, antimicrobial and other beneficial properties.

Why we love honey

Natural honey is a concentrated benefit: it contains all the most useful, healing and healthy that is in nature.
Andrey Medvedev
The most amazing thing about bees is that all of their products are very useful to humans.
do bees have disadvantages?
Andrey Medvedev

This is how honey is made

Olga Druganina

Olga Druganina’s farm “Annushkina Farm” is located 110 km from Moscow, in the Mozhaisk district of the Moscow region. The farm has its own herd of Schwyzka cows, goats, chickens and geese. The farm makes a variety of dairy products: yoghurt, cottage cheese, butter, cheese, as well as pelmeni and zephyr.
Olga Druganina

Milk has a long way to go before it becomes delicious.

Olga Druganina
Farm produce is always a little different
Olga Druganina

Shy cow

Shy cow
To be truly interesting, you need to be able to surprise
Good milk yields and high quality milk are not enough for a successful dairy farm — you also need a creative imagination.
Olga Druganina's farm

Constantly finding something interesting for ourselves

It is necessary all the time to come up with something unusual, to offer original novelties.

Olga Druganina's farm

Surprising the sophisticated consumer is not so easy

All the time we are trying and inventing, turning common everyday products into real delicacies.

It’s not easy to make cheese

Olga Druganina
Something is already working, but the result is often unpredictable.
Olga Druganina
Cheese in Russia
explore
explore
Cheese in Russia
Industrial cheese-making did not exist in the Russian Empire until the middle of the 19th century.
Pasteurization
Pasteurization
Freshly steamed milk is heated to a temperature of 60-80 degrees
Adding sourdough
Adding sourdough
Starter and clotting enzymes are added to the pasteurized milk
Clot slicing and whey removal
Clot slicing and whey removal
The mixture is heated and sliced to create uniform cheese “grains”; the excess liquid — whey — is poured off
Moulding
Moulding
The cheese mixture is transferred to moulds
Pressing
Pressing
Depending on the variety, the cheese is pressed under its own weight or using a special press
Pickling
Pickling
The formed cheese is salted in a salt bath
Maturing
Maturing
After salting, the cheese is dried and sent to a special room for maturation
Olga Druganina's farm

Our Customers

There are a lot of people among them: pensioners, young mothers, and middle-aged dacha owners, who all want to try something delicious and natural

Olga Druganina's farm

We also make marshmallows.

On a good farm, everything goes into business! There are chickens — there are eggs, eggs are proteins, and proteins are… homemade marshmallows with various unusual additives.

Every farm should have something that makes it unique

Olga Druganina
Recipe for melted cottage cheese curds
explore
explore
Cheesecakes
By Chef Georgy Troyan

Gender preferences of buyers of farm products according to observations of Olga Druganina

Women
  1. Melted cottage cheese
  2. Marshmallows
  3. Dairy desserts
Men
  1. Custard cream with herbs and garlic
  2. Dumplings
  3. Butter with herbs and garlic
Olga Druganina

Ivan Chepenko

The farmstead of Ivan Chepenko and Stepan Simakov “Kolomenskaya Yagoda” is located in the village of Myachkovo, 20 kilometers from Kolomna, and occupies 80 hectares of land on which farmers grow more than 70 varieties of strawberries, as well as currants, raspberries, gooseberries, blackberries and other berries
Ivan Chepenko
Ivan Chepenko
Door to Summer

The Queen of Berries

Garden strawberries (which we are all used to calling strawberries) are the champion of berries. Over 9 million tons of strawberries are produced and consumed around the world each year. And it’s not just because they are tasty and beautiful. By its usefulness, this berry is one of the first places.
It is believed that regular consumption of garden strawberries reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases, lowers cholesterol levels, prevents the risk of diabetes — in general, works wonders with the body.
Marais de Bois

Mara de Bois variety

French breeders spent a long time working on this variety and bred it in the late 1980s. The name translates as “forest berry.

Kupchikha

Merchant’s variety

This variety is a hybrid of garden strawberry and strawberry, which is why the berry is sometimes called “strawberry”. Pride of domestic selection!

Kupchikha

Fragrance

One of the main indicators of strawberry ripeness is its aroma: the more fragrant the berry, the more delicious it is.

Kupchikha

White Swede variety

White strawberries were bred in Europe centuries ago, then forgotten about and revived only recently. The “White Swede” is native to Sweden.

Why we love berries

  1. Because they taste good.
  2. Because they’re healthy.
  3. Because they’re beautiful.

Man’s special relationship with berries has lasted for thousands of years: the very first people who roamed the forests were engaged in gathering — and they gathered berries in the first place.

Berries are a real treasury of nature, we get energy, vitamins, trace elements, a lot of other useful substances and in addition a good mood from them. Man began to domesticate berries around the XIV century, and by the beginning of the XIX century breeders have achieved considerable success in this business. Today there are several dozen species of garden berries in the world, and most of them are cultivated in Russia. In addition to everyone’s favorite garden strawberries, these are, of course, black and red currants, raspberries and gooseberries.

Strawberry is not strawberry
explore
explore
Strawberry
This is a completely different, although related berry
Berries have character, too
Berries are not as easy as they seem. Each species needs its own special approach.
Currants

Currants

Currants come in black, red, and white. Black currants have good not only berries, but also leaves that contain essential oils — fragrant and fragrant.

Garden strawberries

Garden strawberries

The most favorite berry of all times and peoples remains the garden strawberry, known to us as a strawberry — in popularity and demand nothing can compete with it.

Raspberries

Raspberries

Raspberries can be not only raspberry, but also red, soft pink, white, yellow and almost orange.

gooseberry

gooseberry

The gooseberry is a blood brother of the currant. It came to Russia back in the eleventh century, and in 1898 A.P. Chekhov immortalized it in his story.

Useful properties of berries
Garden strawberries
Garden strawberries
Vitamins A, B, C, E, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, calcium, iron, iodine, manganese.
Black currant
Black currant
20 grams of black currants provide the daily requirement of an adult for ascorbic acid
Red currant
Red currant
Vitamins A, C, E, potassium, iron, selenium, antioxidants.
Gooseberry
Gooseberry
Effective in preventing hypertension, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases.
Raspberry
Raspberry
Vitamins B, C, E, potassium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese. A strong antioxidant.
Blackberry
Blackberry
Contains a lot of manganese and a special enzyme that helps manganese to form collagen and heal wounds
Ivan Chepenko
What do berries need to grow? Communicating

What they make from berries

Growing a berry crop and gathering it is only half the battle. The most important thing is to preserve the picked berries, albeit not in their original form, but so as not to lose at least part of their useful properties. People began to solve this problem a long time ago: berries are boiled, dried, frozen, freeze-dried and generally processed in a variety of ways.
What is the difference between jam, jam and confit

The main difference is the consistency. In jam it is the most heterogeneous, in jam it is homogeneous and thick. Confit is the thickest of all.

festival

It is best to test new berry treats in some fun, crowded place. For example, at a rock festival.

What is made of berries

  1. Jam, jams, confitures
  2. Desserts
  3. Drinks
  4. Ice Cream
  5. Sauces

Two ways

When we say “farming,” we mean “organic farming,” that is, the organic way of farming with minimal use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators, and other chemicals. To follow this path, we need to set things up in such a way as to maintain the health of soils, ecosystems, plants, animals and people as much as possible. It’s a hard, long, but promising and effective way.
Garden strawberries
Berries also have enemies
explore
explore
The May Beetle
These are May beetle larvae and thrushes — the former are dealt with by the plow, the latter are dealt with by kites and hawks
How it all began

At first Ivan and Stepan had only a few hectares of land, but now they have 80 hectares: 20 of them are developed, 60 are in the process of development.

It's all about getting the taste

Growing berries turned out to be a gamble — with the first successful harvest, Ivan and Stepan realized that nothing could stop them.

Strawberry Fields. Video for meditation

Next story
About Dostoevsky
Apokrif

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