Varvara Romanenko, Alexei Taranin, Viktor Koreshev, Georgy Kulikov, Natalia Bogoyavlenskaya, Anna Kravtsova, Maxim Makarov, Maxim Mikheev, Yuri Orlov, Elena Vasyova, Vladimir Derevyanko, Konstantin Batrakov, Vladimir Morozov, Yuri Podgorbunsky, Maxim Samborsky, Roman Malyshev, Andrei Sosnovsky, Andrei Tavolzhansky, Elena Fokina, Valeria Borscheva, Alexei Igoshev, Ilya Maskileyson, Egor Lisovoy, Nikolai Pigarev, Maxim Smirnov, Vladislav Ikonnikov, Vladimir Borisov, Yuri Grishin, Arthur Salihov, Mikhail Tatyanin
Viruses know no borders, they do not care what race, nationality or social group their victims belong to. There are hundreds of millions of viruses, about a thousand of them are accurately described, including the most dangerous and deadly ones: HIV, hepatitis, avian and swine flu, Ebola fever, coronavirus SARS-CoV-2…
Virology is designed to keep us safe from terrible diseases and epidemics, and it succeeds. The fight against viruses does not stop for a minute: new viruses and mutations of known ones are investigated, vaccines are created and mass vaccinations are carried out, saving millions of lives. The forces are largely unequal — no one can predict the behavior of viruses and their evolution, but science is already able to detect them, study them and create a mechanism of protection against them in a fairly short time. Virology is the barrier that protects us from the darkest forces of nature, and it is hard to imagine what would happen if we were left alone with viruses.
The scientist passed the sap of the diseased tobacco leaves through a porcelain filter, which has very fine pores and retains all bacteria. He then transferred the resulting substance to the healthy plants, and soon they became ill with tobacco mosaic.
Ivanovsky found out that if you heat the juice to 60-70 degrees, the disease does not occur. This unequivocally pointed to the living nature of the pathogen.
In 1892, Ivanovsky published a scientific article “On Two Diseases of Tobacco” in the journal “Agriculture” with a detailed description of his experiments proving the existence of microorganisms much smaller in size than bacteria. The term “virus” did not exist then, and the scientist called them “mini-microbes. From this publication it is customary to trace the emergence of a new science: virology.
The term “mini-microbes” was in use until we found the short and familiar to our ear term “viruses”. In Latin, virus means “poison”.
In 1935, American scientist Wendell Stanley first isolated the tobacco mosaic virus.
It was not until 1939, after the invention of the electron microscope, that they were able to see the virus.
In 1888 he first suggested the infectious nature of hepatitis, later called Botkin’s disease.
In 1886, with the assistance of Louis Pasteur, he carried out the first mass vaccination against rabies in Russia. In 1918, using the smallpox vaccine he developed, general vaccination against smallpox was carried out in Petrograd and then throughout the country.
In 1925 he described the elementary bodies of smallpox virus and later developed a dry smallpox vaccine. He was one of the creators of the smallpox eradication program, thanks to which smallpox was eradicated in the USSR by 1936. Author of the fundamental “Atlas of Virus Morphology”.
In 1939 he discovered the viral nature of tick-borne encephalitis and developed an effective system of prevention of this disease. In 1944 he was the first to suggest the viral nature of oncological diseases.
He discovered and researched viruses of Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Crimean hemorrhagic fever and many others. In 1959 he was the first in the world to organize the production and clinical trials of polio vaccine, which allowed to eliminate polio in the USSR in a few years.
He was one of the authors of the 1958 Global Smallpox Eradication Program, which virtually eliminated smallpox from the world by 1980. Author of fundamental works on infectious hepatitis, influenza, evolution of infectious diseases, classification of viruses, and problems of molecular biology of viruses.
Author of more than 600 scientific papers on tick-borne encephalitis, hemorrhagic nephrozoonephritis, poliomyelitis, measles, epidemic parotitis, influenza, antiviral immunity, methods of prevention of viral infections. In the late 1960s, he developed vaccines against tick-borne encephalitis, epidemic mumps, measles, poliomyelitis, and influenza.
The long-time head of the D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology of the Russian Academy of Sciences is the world’s leading scientist in the field of virus ecology, author of fundamental works on pandemics of avian influenza and influenza A.
The best posters
Unfortunately, your browser is outdated and does not support some of the technologies required to view the site.
To visit the site, useGoogle Chromeor any other modern browser.